Tuesday, June 12, 2012

My Review from AAMC MCAT Pretest 11


Day 3:

My Review from AAMC MCAT Pretest 11

Reduction occurs at the cathode + (RC cola)
Oxidation occurs at the anode -

Pay attention to reverse reaction conditions like temperature or pressure...

Given Moles of Reactant Find Volume of Gas Product
Gas = 22.4L (STP)
Remember to check the stoichiometric ratio of reactant and product! 
Reactant # moles x (ratio product/reactant) x 22.4L/mole of gas = # L of gas product

Save calculations for last instead of hurrying...

Spontaneous reactions have -ΔG°
ΔG Free Energy Change
ΔH Enthalpy
ΔS Enthropy

Given Mass Find Pressure of Gas in a Container (Fixed Volume) 
# g x (1 mole/molar mass g) = moles of gas (indicating pressure during fixed volume)

The atomic number is the number of electrons also. 
Ex. Magnesium #12 has 12 electrons.
Filling them into shells: 
1s has 2 (10 left), 2s has 2 (8 left), 2p has 6 (2 left), 3s has 2 (done)

Knowing the last two electrons are in shell 3s, 
their angular momentum number (l) is 0.
LetterMax electronsShapeName
1p6Two DumbbellsPrincipal
2d10Four Dumbbells or Uniquely Shaped OneDiffuse
3f14Eight Dumbbells or Uniquely Shaped TwoFundamental

Sub-Shell order: Some (=0) Poor (=1) Dumb (=2) Fool (=3)

See if the equations mentioned in the passage can be rearrangement and if information is present to fill in the variables...

N/m= Pascal
kg m/s= Newton
kg m2/s= Joule (or watt/s or Newton Meter or Pascal m3)

Calculate more slowly...

Velocity= Kinetic Energy
Power of Air Resistance = -mgVT
P = FV
Weight = mg

Less soluble -> Solid
More soluble -> Liquid
Solubility of a product defines whether it is in liquid or solid (precipitate) form...

Given Unequal Moles of Reactants Find Product Mass (Limiting Reagent Problem)
Balance the Reaction
Convert the Reactants into Moles
Multiply by the Stoiciometric Ratio of Product/Reactant (All Reactants)
Take the Smallest Amount (the Limiting Reagent)
To Get Product Mass, Multiply the Previous Answer by (Molar Weight g/mol)

ΔH = -# 

Heat increase pressure
Cooling decreases pressure
PV = nRT (T must be in Kelvins) 
R = 8.314 J K−1 mol−1

Redox Reaction:
Count how many electrons are available from the oxidation
Count how many electrons are required for the reduction
Balance the electrons

If E° is given a #
The reverse reaction is -#
Remember to switch the sign!
For a spontaneous reaction:
E° = positive numbers 

I = V/R

Period of Circ2 r/ular Motion:
T = 2πr/v

Read carefully...

Subjectivize = Personalize

Trypsin is a pancreatic enzyme that empties into the duodenum and has a operating pH of 8.

(+)-Cellbiose has beta linkages

Adenine's phosphate bonds to Thymine's sugar in DNA

Microfilaments are made of actin
Microtubules originate in the centrosome

T-call receptors bind to viral antigens 

Sperm becomes motile and capable of fertilization in the epididymis 

Carboxylic acids form stronger hydrogen bonds then alcohols

DNA codes for all proteins, isoenzymes have different DNA

mRNA sequences increase when production of a protein is increased

Determining R or S Chiral Configuration:
Determine Atomic Numbers
Pointing the Lowest Number Away
Look at the Direction Going High to Low
Clockwise = Rectus, Counter Clockwise = Sinister

Pronation (a kinetic phenomenon) will not affect the equilibrium constant or rate of SN2 reactions.

Humans transcribe DNA into RNA using DNA-dependent RNA polymerase

Proteases digest protein into smaller protein fragments

Proteins synthesis from amino-terminal to carboxy-terminal

Bacteria transfer traits by acquiring nucleic acids

Predominant = Most Stable 
(Often the Chair Conformation):
Bulky Component Equatorial 
Left Overs Cis at the 3 and 5 Postitions

At the end of reviewing the test I realized that I missed the same amount of questions that I knew the answer to (because I didn't read or calculate carefully), as questions that I didn't know. Since I missed about 44% total. If I read and calculate more carefully, I should miss 22% less. The anxiety of finishing on time has a detrimental effect on my calculations. I will look into reducing my anxiety of timed tests sometime soon. 

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